Friday, July 31, 2009

Malaysia University Of Science And Technology

10:33 PM


Malaysia University of Science and Technology (MUST) was founded on a collaborative programme between MUST Ehsan Foundation and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). MUST was established based on the belief that Malaysia has the ability to develop a major research and development infrastructure capable of making it a leader in the development of highly skilled human resources needed to accelerate economic development in high technology areas for itself and the region.

Quality and opportunity are the keys to post-graduate study. MUST seeks to provide a fully integrated and balanced post-graduate education that will produce professionals who will not only have a deep understanding of the natural sciences, information processing and micro- and macro-economics, but also a solid knowledge of their chosen fields. In addition, our graduates will understand how their chosen field fits in a broader technical context. They will have a clear sense of society’s needs and understand relevant economic, political, ecological, and institutional contexts. Further, they will have the ability to work in multi-disciplinary teams, to be able to express themselves creatively and productively.

Tuesday, July 14, 2009

Masjid jamek

4:56 AM


Masjid Jamek is one of the oldest mosques in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is located at the confluence of the Klang and Gombak River and was designed by Arthur Benison Hubback.The Sultan of Selangor officially opened the mosque in 1909, two years after construction was completed. The mosque was built on the first Malay burial ground in the city. Before the national mosque, Masjid Negara, was opened in 1965, Masjid Jamek served as Kuala Lumpur's main mosque.

The mosque has a Moorish architecture. Across the Klang River stands the Sultan Abdul Samad Building, a building that was designed by the same architect and shares a similar style.

Nearby is the Masjid Jamek LRT station that is served by the Kelana Jaya Line, Sri Petaling Line and Ampang Line. Dataran Merdeka is also nearby.

Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque

4:48 AM


The Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Mosque (Malay: Masjid Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz) is the state mosque of Selangor, Malaysia. It is located in Shah Alam. It is the country's biggest mosque and also the second biggest mosque in Southeast Asia after Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta, Indonesia.

History

The mosque was commissioned by the late Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz, when he declared Shah Alam as the new capital of Selangor on February 14, 1974. Construction began in 1982 and finished on March 11, 1988. During the reign of Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz, Shah Alam Mosque was built between 1982 and 1988. The Mosque is also known as the Blue Mosque owing to its blue dome which is one of the largest in the whole world. The structure of the mosque incorporates Malay and Islamic architecture.

National Mosque (Masjid Negara)

4:44 AM


The Masjid Negara is the national mosque of Malaysia, located in Kuala Lumpur. It has a capacity of 15,000 people and is situated among 13 acres (53,000 m2) of beautiful gardens. The original structure was designed by a three-person team from the Public Works Department - UK architect Howard Ashley, and Malaysians Hisham Albakri and Baharuddin Kassim. Originally built in 1965, it is a bold and modern approach in reinforced concrete, symbolic of the aspirations of a then newly-independent Malaysia.

Its key features are a 73-metre-high minaret and an 18-pointed star concrete main roof. The umbrella, synonymous with the tropics, is featured conspicuously - the main roof is reminiscent of an open umbrella, the minaret's cap a folded one. The folded plates of the concrete main roof is a creative solution to achieving the larger spans required in the main gathering hall. Reflecting pools and fountains spread throughout the compound.

Local reports have drawn metaphors about the significance of its main roof: 18 points symbolise the (then) 13 states of Malaysia and the Five Pillars of Islam. However, design member Hisham Albakri revealed in an interview with Badan Warisan Malaysia that this was erroneous.

Monday, July 13, 2009

Banding Island Resort

10:34 AM





Today's world is a demanding place to live in, and everybody needs a break now and then. Banding Island Resort offers you the ideal getaway from the hustle and bustle of modern city life. Situated on a man made lake in the midst of the idyllic Belum forest, our resort is the place to calm your soul and iron out the wrinkles of today's hectic lifestyle.

Putera Island resort

10:28 AM


Located on Pulau Besar (168 hectare), the tranquil island with unspoilt beauty, it is an ideal place for relaxing.

For the spot enthusiast, it is an ideal starting point for jungle trekking, island hopping, island tour, canoeing, beach volleyball etc.

A short excursion to Malacca, famous for it's historical places and shopping haven is just a 20 minutes ferry ride.

THE UNIQUENESS

Stay in Putera Island Resort and experience the history and culture personally.

At Putera Island Resort, you get more than a chalet built in traditional style.

During tea time, look out for the pedlar who cycle or walk pass the chalet with a basket full of "nasi lemak" or other local pass by yelling out "nasi lemak" or whatsoever to place your order.

At Putera Island Resort, we not only have traditional games for our guests to play. We guide you to make your own such as "batu lima".

Come to Putera island Resort and discover more

Duta Puri Island Resort Pulau Kapas

9:57 AM


Duta Puri Island Resort Pulau Kapas is set on the beautiful island named Kapas Island (or Pulau Kapas). It was built in 1993 and is set on 1.6 acres of prime beach front where its sand is as soft and as white as cotton. Hence it is aptly called Kapas Island as "Kapas" means cotton in the local Malay Language. Laze at the beachside on one of the hammocks and drifts off to the peaceful sounds of the waves of the deep blue ocean.

Feel the fresh breeze caress you as you let all your cares go. You may even opt for some sporting activities of jungle trekking or snorkeling at its crystal clear waters and admire the lovely live corals and colorful fishes.

independence

9:46 AM

In 1963, Malaya along with the then-British crown colonies of Sabah (British North Borneo), Sarawak and Singapore, formed Malaysia. The Sultanate of Brunei, though initially expressing interest in joining the Federation, withdrew from the planned merger due to opposition from certain segments of its population as well as arguments over the payment of oil royalties and the status of the Sultan in the planned merger.[39][40]

The early years of independence were marred by the conflict with Indonesia (Konfrontasi) over the formation of Malaysia, Singapore's eventual exit in 1965, and racial strife in the form of race riots in 1969.[12][41] The Philippines also made an active claim on Sabah in that period based upon the Sultanate of Brunei's cession of its north-east territories to the Sulu Sultanate in 1704. The claim is still ongoing.[42] After the 13 May race riots of 1969, the controversial New Economic Policy—intended to increase proportionately the share of the economic pie of the bumiputras ("indigenous people", which includes the majority Malays, but not always the indigenous population) as compared to other ethnic groups—was launched by Prime Minister Abdul Razak. Malaysia has since maintained a delicate ethno-political balance, with a system of government that has attempted to combine overall economic development with political and economic policies that promote equitable participation of all races.[43]

Between the 1980s and the mid-1990s, Malaysia experienced significant economic growth under the premiership of Mahathir bin Mohamad.[44] The period saw a shift from an agriculture-based economy to one based on manufacturing and industry in areas such as computers and consumer electronics. It was during this period, too, that the physical landscape of Malaysia has changed with the emergence of numerous mega-projects. The most notable of these projects are the Petronas Twin Towers (at the time the tallest building in the world), KL International Airport (KLIA), North-South Expressway, the Sepang F1 Circuit, the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC), the Bakun hydroelectric dam and Putrajaya, the new federal administrative capital.

In the late-1990s, Malaysia was shaken by the Asian financial crisis as well as political unrest caused by the sacking of the deputy prime minister Dato' Seri Anwar Ibrahim.[45] In 2003, Dr Mahathir, Malaysia's longest serving prime minister, retired in favour of his deputy, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. On November 2007, Malaysia was rocked by two anti-government rallies. The 2007 Bersih Rally numbering 40,000 strong was held in Kuala Lumpur on 10 November campaigning for electoral reform. It was precipitated by allegations of corruption and discrepancies in the Malaysian election system that heavily favour the ruling political party, Barisan Nasional, which has been in power since Malaysia achieved its independence in 1957.[46] Another rally was held on 25 November in the Malaysian capital lead by HINDRAF. The rally organiser, the Hindu Rights Action Force, had called the protest over alleged discriminatory policies that favour ethnic Malays. The crowd was estimated to be between 5,000 and 30,000.[47] In both cases the government and police were heavy handed and tried to prevent the gatherings from taking place. In 16 October 2008, HINDRAF was banned as the government labelled the organisation as "a threat to national security"

Tempurung Seaside

9:37 AM


Tempurung Seaside Lodge sits atop a small hill overlooking the South China Seas with stunning sunset and pristine white sandy beach, it is a place where dreams and reality converge. It's 2 hours drive from the city. Come and enjoy the best of borneo

Description of Surrounding Area


Tempurung Seaside Lodge is located in the village of Tempurung in the district of Kuala Penyu. It is some 2 hours drive to the South West of the city. The Klias wetland is just 25 minutes away, home to the odd nose Proboscis Monkeys and many other wild life and animals. White water rafting adventure can be arranged from the lodge as it takes only 40 minutes away from the train ride.Tempurung Seaside Lodge is

Genting Island

9:19 AM


Located approximately 11 kilometres north of Kuala Lumpur, Batu Caves is a popular natural attraction made up of a cluster of spectacular limestone caves, with the Temple Cave and its 100-metre-high ceiling being the focal point. What’s special about these caves is that besides being a wondrous creation of nature, it is also a sacred ground for the Hindus, with thousands thronging here every year to celebrate a major religious event in the Hindu calendar, the Thaipusam. During this day, Batu Caves comes alive with a procession of devotees carrying colourful kavadis up the 272 steps leading to the entrance of the Temple Cave.

Garden under the sea

9:16 AM





As the largest island among the Redang Archipelago, Pulau Redang is not only made famous by its white sandy beach but also the world lying beneath this crystal clear water which, is not only paradise for marine life but also for natural lovers. Snorkeling or diving in the sea around Pulau Redang is a breathtaking experience where, the water surrounding Pulau Redang is home to some 3,000 species of fish, 1.000 of species of bivalves and 500 species of reef-building coral. Coral reefs are found in the shallow as well as the deep water around the islands. They are formed by gradual accumulation and transformation of tiny soft-bodied animals, closely related to sea anemones. One of the very common coral found in the waters of Pulau Redang is Staghorn corals. This reef-building corals are often found in shallow areas. They are green, brown or yellowish in colour and they provide shelter for a variety of small fishes and other sea animals. In the deeper water there are sea fans, soft tree corals, cup coral and several species of nudibranch. Some deeper rocks are covered with leathery soft corals with some soft tree corals, cup corals, tunicates and sponges. Large giant clams are often found here. Then on the sand itself are larger soft corals and sea fans, whip corals, table corals, mushroom corals, boulder corals, nudibranch, sea stars, cushin stars and sea urchin. Perhaps you will agree that the glory of this underwater garden will eclipse if without the existence of fish. Fish chasing each other in the coral or swimming in groups in the dark blue sea like a group of patrolling soldiers, making this garden as fascinating and as colourful as the colour palette of an artist. Shoaling fish such as jacks and snappers and rabbitfish, or groupers silver barracudas, clownfish, triggerfish, parrotfish, stingrays, hammerheads and Green turtles etc. is always surprises the divers. There have been a few times when divers have spotted a whale shark at Big Mount, one of the popular dive sites in Pulau Redang. And if you are lucky, you might spot a cuttlefish, squid and/or Eagle ray while snorkeling. The best location for snorkeling on this island is found at the southern coast around the Pulau Pinang and Pulau Ekor Tebu. Below sea level, you will get to see some of the more beautiful sea creatures including the batfish, angelfish, boxfish and butterfly fish. There are also many multicolored creatures that eat off anemone, sponges and bivalves. For diving enthusiasts, there are about 18 dive sites around Pulau Redang, each has its own way to surprise the divers. Conservation has been taken place by gazetted this island as one of the marine park in Malaysia in order to protect the marine life in this marine paradise. Activities such as fishing, collecting corals and marine life, and anchoring boats directly on the reef are prohibited within two nautical miles of these islands.
Diving: There are approximately 20 dive sites around these islands. Here are some of the sites: Mak Chantik: This submerged reef is the most popular site in Pulau Redang. Average depth is 18 metres. This reef supports many species of coral fishes including a number of stingrays and yellow tailed barracudas.Tanjung Tokong: Located at the northern cape of Pulau Redang, this site covers a large area. Average depth is 20 metres. There is a resident Napoleon Wrasse which guards this place. Tombstone: Large formation of limestone rocks form dramatic walls which rise from the sandy bottom 20 metres deep. These rocks look like temples and there are a few swim-throughs to enjoy in this area.Redang House Reef: The house reef is a small cape between two long beautiful beaches in Redang, where most lower budget chalets are. It is a popular snorkeling site as well as a shallow dive site. Parrot fish, sergeant major, and common tropical reef fish are abundant here.Big Mount: Claimed to be the best dive site in Redang, this underwater mount is under 35 metres of water with its tip at 18 metres. Some area are covered with gorgonian corals and black corals.Pulau Pinang (Marine Park): Being one of the most visited islands in Redang, this dive site is an excellent location for beginners. Average depth is about 12 metres. Dense coral growth can be seen in the shallow side. There is also a wreck which makes an interesting place for advanced students to explore their first wreck here.

Redang island

9:10 AM









White sandy beaches, crystal clear blue sea, brilliant underwater world..... Redang Island is located at 45 km offshore of Terengganu. Redang archipelago comprises 9 islands, the Lima Island, Paku Besar Island, Paku Kecil Island, Kerengga Besar Island, Kerengga Kecil Island, Ekor Tebu Island, Ling Island, Pinang Island and Redang Island. This archipelago is abounds with marvelous marine fishes, turtles and coral reefs, ensuring a great snorkelling and scuba-diving experience. Redang Island which is approximately 7km in length 6km in width, is the largest of all other islands in the Marine Park.
The Redang archipelago has been designated as Pulau Redang Marine Parks Malaysia as to conserve the islands’ unique ecosystem. There are 500 species of live corals, more than a thousand species of invertebrates and almost 3000 species of fishes which includes manta rays, stingrays, sharks and whale sharks, all living in harmony in the reefs fringing the islands. It is a real heaven for divers.
Diving enthusiasts and underwater photographers will definitely be entranced by the sights of the islands, which are ranked among the best coral reef in the world. Among the attractions at the twenty over different diving spots, there are shipwrecks near Pinang Island, black coral garden as well as the mysterious submerged chamber, both located in the vicinity of Lima Island. And not Forgetting is the Mini Mount situated between Kerenggan Besar Island and Kerenggan Kecil Island. Redang waters also contains two historic shipwrecks. The H.M.S Prince of Wales and H.M.S. Repulse were sunk here during the WWII, setting the stage for the Japanese occupation of Malaya.
History of the people The early settlers of Redang Island were believed to have descended from the Bugis of Celebes, Indonesia. It was said that there were seven Bugis siblings traveled from Celebes to look for new settlement. One of the members, Batin Talib has finally decided to make Redang Island his new home. He established the first village faced towards the lagoon at Telok Kalong Besar on the east of the island. To shelter from the strong monsoon wind, he moved to a smaller island on the south which he named Pinang Island due to the betel nut palms (pinang) here. Another member, Batin Mina was said to have settled down in Perhentian Island and his sister Batin Cik Siti headed to Hulu Terengganu. The whereabouts of the rest Batins was however unknown.
Population of Redang Island Today, Redang Island is a home for a community of nearly 250 fisherman families who are believed to be the descendents of the Bugis. They build their homeland in a new village at the left bank of Sungai Redang estuary, approximately 3 kilometers inland from the previous one. It has been characterized by rapid economic growth and improvement in most social indicators in recent years, mainly contributed by tourism and fishing industry.
Legendary Redang It is always says that, the multi races Malaysian society has created an ideal environment to the country to nurture a rich cultural background with lot of legends. This is especially obvious in name of places.
Due to its strategic location, Redang Archipelago was once a traders' passage-by between Siam (Thailand today) and the Malaya Archipelago. It was a temporary anchorage for them in their miles long trading journey.
Among these passers-by, there was a trader from Terengganu, Awang Sulong Muda whose wife was Cik Hitam Pasir Panjang Muda Elok Terenganu. The Awang couples together with their lady-in-waiting, Dayang Sri Jawa and Hulubalang, Awang Selamat were used to stop and had their break in Redang Island in their trading route. They tided the fowls which they brought along at southeastern of the island which is called Pasir Macam Ayam (chicken-alike sand) today. The rock that this family tided their fowls is still standing there in the island until today, but one might wonder the size of the fowls when looking at the huge size of this rock.
Other than this fowls tided rock, there are two other rocks both embedded with each other standing on a hill in Teluk Kalong. These embedded rocks look very much like the rears of an elephant and therefore are called Batu Gajah (elephant rocks) by the local. Batu Gajah is believed to be the marine elephants or Gajah Laut which were turned into stones due to some unknown reasons.
The cultural rich condition in Malaysia has further enriched by mythos found in folk’s believes. The existence of Orang Bunian (the fairies) in legendary stories is no longer an unfamiliar topic.
In Redang Island, Orang Bunian were said to have resided at the five cluster stones, Batu Surat or Batu Bedung (letter stones) near Pasir Changar Hutang. It was very usual in those days that the villagers will come to these Orang Bunian to inform them of any kenduri (banguet) to be held. They will also inform the fairies of the number of guests expected. Then, on the day of the kenduri, a full set of crockery will appear from nowhere for the kenduri purposes.
Not far from here is another group of rocks, the Batu Tok Kong which, is a worshiping place for some devotees due to the belief that there are Orang Bunian reside here.
To the southeastern of the island is another worship rock, Tanjung Telaga Batu. The worshipping practices started due to a saying that there stayed a man called Syeikh Samarani who would grant requests. No one can tell how true is the saying but up to late 1970’s, there were still people placing their offering and requesting for favours.
The legendary of Redang Archipelago will never be completed if without the turtle like stone laying on top of a rock at Tajung Batu Pepanji, somewhere between Teluk Dalam and Pasir Changar Hutang. This turtle stone is said to be the guardian of all the turtles in Redang Waters.
Whether the fragrant reported by the villagers came from Puteri Mayang Mas who is reputed to reside at Pasir Mak Kepit or there are magic which made the water puddle in Pasir Gontang supplies inexhaustible water, it is all suggesting a room for the readers to imagine and buy-in. However this will never influence the mysterious of Redang Archipelago, instead has become part of its heritage which added to the fascination of these islands.

Kapas Island Resort

9:08 AM


With soft sandy golden beaches and azure-green clean water, you will definitely have a thought of what you enjoy next. Almost everything can be arranged, jungle-tracking, fishing, canoeing, snorkeling or scuba diving, or maybe you can just simply laze in the sun. If you like, you can also enjoy surfing and kayaking a neat and enjoyable way of exercising! Walking along the beach seems to be a good idea and if you are interested, you can collect a variety of wonderful sea shells of various shapes and sizes, or maybe catch a glimpse of wildlife such as birds and lizards! From dawn till dusk, the beach panorama changes with colours of the changing time, and Kapas Island Resort simply enjoying the scene is a lot of fun.

Rebak Island Resort

9:05 AM


Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces is one of Asia's largest and finest group of hotels, comprising 59 hotels in 41 locations across India with an additional 17 international hotels in the Maldives, Mauritius, Malaysia, Australia, UK, USA, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Africa and the Middle East. The Rebak Island Resort is a unique and an exclusive haven located on the secluded and privately-owned 389-acre Rebak Island, less than 5 km away from the mythical island of Langkawi, Malaysia.

Its sheltered harbour offers protection from harsh weather elements, while allowing you to commune with nature in a comfortable and secure environment. The resort has a first-class marina with full equipment that can accommodate vessels up to 30-meters in 189 wet berths and 70 dry berths. Its protected harbour, from wakes and surges, is easily accessible and has a minimum depth of 2.5-meters at low tide. Your comfort is assured with recently upgraded amenities, individually-metered electricity, freshwater supply and 24-hour security.

The adjacent Rebak Island Resort, managed by the Taj Hotels, Resorts & Palaces Group, offers further respite for the weary traveller with its luxury-class services and facilities. Rebak Island Resort also offers on-site maintenance and repair facilities, with ample yard space, and a 65-ton Marine Travel Lift, supported by ancillary services. Its marina office facilitates visa requirements & extensions for up to 2 years, making it the perfect one-stop center for all your yachting needs in Malaysia and the region.

Blue coral island Resort

9:00 AM

Blue Coral Island Resort,
.

Blue Coral Island Resort, a 3 star resort is located at Pulau Lang Tengah, Terengganu Malaysia. Blue Coral Island Resort is situated in the middle of Malaysia premier marine park sanctuary, an island resort best kept secret in Redang Archipelago off Terengganu Island of Malaysia.

Pulau Lang Tengah (Lang Tengah Island) is among a string of beautiful islands off the East Coast of Terengganu, Malaysia and sandwiched between Redang Island and Perhentian Island.

Pulau Lang Tengah (Lang Tengah Island) is one of the best diving spot in Malaysia. Divers can choose from 15 dive sites around Land Tengah Island all within 10 minutes boat ride from each other.

Blue Coral Island Resort offers white sandy beaches, crystal clear water and hills covered with lush tropical jungle offering fresh air peace and tranquility like no other on this uninhabited island escape where although away from the madness of civilization, you are definitely not deprived of your comfort and safety. “A Tropical Island Resort”, snorkelers and divers paradise.

Picture yourself basking in an uninhabited island located in a pristine marine sanctuary park where the water is crystal clear and where swimming with the friendly sea creatures is the favourite past time. Imagine the refreshing sea breeze while you walk along the powdery white sandy beaches. Welcome to BLUE CORAL ISLAND RESORT one of Malaysia most enchanting island Resort.

Due to the monsoon and the North East Wind from the South China Sea, we are closed yearly for maintenance from 01 November until 31 January the following year and are subject to changes depending on the conditions of the sea.

Welcome to Blue Coral Island Resort Malaysia, your gateway to a memorable holiday on the Paradise Island of Pulau Lang Tengah Malaysia.

Kuala Lumpur

2:36 AM

Kuala Lumpur (pronounced /ˈkwɑːləlʊmˈpʊər/ in English;[2] Malay [kwɑlɑlʊmpʊ], locally [kwɑləlʊmpɔ] or even [kɔlɔmpɔ],[3] and often abbreviated as K.L.), is the capital and largest city of Malaysia. The city proper, making up an area of 244 km2 (94 sq mi), has an estimated population of 1.6 million in 2006.[4] Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million.[5] It is the fastest growing metropolitan region in the country, in terms of population as well as economy.[6]

Kuala Lumpur is the seat of the Parliament of Malaysia. The city was once home to the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but they have since moved to Putrajaya starting in 1999.[7] Some sections of the judiciary remain in the capital. The official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara, is also situated in Kuala Lumpur. The city is also the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia due to its position as the capital as well as being a primate city.[8] Kuala Lumpur is rated as an alpha world city, and is the only global city in Malaysia, according to the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC).[9]

Kuala Lumpur is defined within the borders of the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and is one of three Malaysian Federal Territories. It is an enclave within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.[10] Residents of the city are known as KLites.[11]

Beginning in the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting, political and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the Formula One World Championship.[12] In addition, Kuala Lumpur is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Twin Towers.

Kuala Lumpur has its origins in the 1850s, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah, hired some Chinese labourers to open new and larger tin mines.[14] They landed at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang (Klang River) to open mines at Ampang.[14] Sungai Gombak was previously known as Sungai Lumpur, which means muddy river. The Original name for this city was "Pengkalan Lumpur", which means bundle of mud. As time passes by the name changed to Kuala Lumpur which literally means “muddy confluence” in Bahasa Melayu. Later, tin mines were opened at Pudu and Batu. Among the early notable pioneers are Hiu Siew and Liu Ngim Kong.

These mines developed into a trading post which became to be considered a frontier town. Early Kuala Lumpur had many problems, including the Selangor Civil War; it was also plagued by diseases and constant fires and floods.[14] Around the 1870s, the Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur, Yap Ah Loy, emerged as leader, and became responsible for the survival and subsequent systematic growth of this town. He began to develop Kuala Lumpur from a small unknown place into a mining town with economic boom. [15] In 1880, the state capital of Selangor was moved from Klang to the more strategically advantageous Kuala Lumpur.[16]

In 1881, a flood swept through the town following a fire which engulfed it earlier. These successive problems destroyed the town's structures of wood and atap (thatching). As a response, Frank Swettenham, the British Resident of Selangor, required that buildings be constructed of brick and tile.[16] Many of the new brick buildings mirrored that of shop houses in southern China, with "five foot ways" as well as skilled Chinese carpentry. This resulted in a distinct eclectic shop house architecture typical to this region. A railway line increased accessibility into this town. Development intensified in the 1890s, leading to the creation of a Sanitary Board. In 1896, Kuala Lumpur was chosen as the capital of the newly formed Federated Malay States.[17]

A scene during World War II on the streets of Kuala Lumpur. The scene depicts Japanese troops clearing up the streets.

A mixture of different communities settled in various sections of Kuala Lumpur. The Chinese mainly settled around the commercial centre of Market Square, east of Klang River, and towards Chinatown. The Malays, Indian Chettiars, and Indian Muslims resided along Java Street (now Jalan Tun Perak). The Padang, now known as Merdeka Square, was the center of the British administrative offices.[14]

During World War II, Kuala Lumpur was captured by the Japanese army on January 11, 1942. They remained in occupation until August 15, 1945, when the commander in chief of the Japanese Seventh Area Army in Singapore and Malaya, Seishirō Itagaki, surrendered to the British administration following the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[18] Kuala Lumpur grew through the war, the rubber and tin commodity crashes and the Malayan Emergency, during which Malaya was preoccupied with the communist insurgency.[16] In 1957, the Federation of Malaya gained its independence from British rule.[19] Kuala Lumpur remained the capital through the formation of Malaysia on September 16, 1963.

On May 13, 1969, one of the worst race riots in Malaysia took place in Kuala Lumpur.[20] The May 13 Incident was a riot between the Malays and the Chinese. The former being dissatisfied with their socio-political situation at the time. The riot resulted in the deaths of 196 people,[20] and led to a major reform in the country's economic policy favouring the Malays.

Kuala Lumpur later achieved city status in 1972,[21] becoming the first settlement in Malaysia to be granted the status after independence. Later, on February 1, 1974, Kuala Lumpur became a Federal Territory.[22] Kuala Lumpur ceased to be the capital of Selangor in 1978 after the city of Shah Alam was declared as the new state capital.[23]

On 14 May 1990, Kuala Lumpur was celebrated 100 years of local authority. The new federal territory of Kuala Lumpur flag and anthem were introduced.

In 1998, another political movement known as Reformasi took place mainly in this city.[24] The movement was a result of the sacking of former Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister, Anwar Ibrahim, and resulted in a chain of protests until 1999, where supporters of Anwar Ibrahim took to the streets to demand reforms in the government's administration, among others.[24]

On February 1, 2001, Putrajaya was declared a Federal Territory, as well as the seat of the federal government.[25] The administrative and judicial functions of the government were shifted from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya. Kuala Lumpur however still retained its legislative function,[26] and remained the home of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King).[27]

Population statistics

The connecting bridge between Mid Valley Megamall and The Gardens, spanning above the central boulevard.

The estimated population of Kuala Lumpur in the city proper for 2006 was 1.58 million.[4] It has a population density of 6,502 inhabitants per square kilometre (16,840 /sq mi), and is the most densely populated administrative district in Malaysia.[4] With an estimated metropolitan population of 6.9 million in 2007, it can be considered a primate city.[1] The continuing decline in the birth rate for Kuala Lumpur has resulted in the decline in the proportion of young people below 15 years old from 33% in 1980 to slightly less than 27% in 2000.[33] On the other hand, the working age group of 15-59 increased from 63% in 1980 to 67% in 2000.[33] The elderly age group, 60 years old and above has increased from 4% in 1980 and 1991 to 6% in 2000.[33]

Based on the census of the Department of Statistics (see http://www.statistics.gov.my/eng/), the percentage of Bumiputera population in Kuala Lumpur alone was around 38% in 2000 (next census is in 2010) while the Chinese population comprised 43% and Indians 10%.[33] A notable phenomenon has been the increase in the presence of foreign residents in Kuala Lumpur, who now constitute about 9% of the city’s population.[33]

Crime in Kuala Lumpur has been a concern of residents in recent years. Among the crimes showing increasing rates were snatch theft, drug addiction, gambling and vice.[40] These problems have been associated with the rising numbers of immigrants from Indonesia and Myanmar. Some of them are brought in with the promise of low to medium grade salary.

[edit] Government

[edit] Local government

The local administration is carried out by the Kuala Lumpur City Hall, an agency under the Federal Territories Ministry of Malaysia.[41] They are responsible for public health and sanitation, waste removal and management, town planning, environmental protection and building control, social and economic development and general maintenance functions of urban infrastructure. Executive power lies with the mayor in the city hall, who is appointed for three years by the Federal Territories Minister. This system of appointing the mayor has been in place ever since the local government elections were suspended in 1970.[42]

Since Kuala Lumpur became a Federal Territory of Malaysia on February 1, 1974, the city has been led by nine mayors.[43] The current mayor of Kuala Lumpur is Dato' Ahmad Fuad Ismail, who is in his first term of office.[44] He was appointed in 2008.

[edit] Politics

Kuala Lumpur is home to the Parliament of Malaysia. The parliament is composed of a lower House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat) and an upper House of Senate (Dewan Negara). The city is represented in the lower House of Representatives by eleven Members of Parliament (MPs),[45] who are elected to five-year terms. Traditionally, political leanings in Kuala Lumpur have been dominated by Barisan Nasional (BN), with seven representatives from BN and the other four from the Democratic Action Party (DAP) prior to the 2008 General Elections. After the 2008 elections BN was left with just one representative, Zulhasnan Rafique, in the Setiawangsa seat. DAP took control of five seats, Parti Keadilan Rakyat taking four seats, and PAS one seat, marking the first time in which the majority of the Federal Territory's constituencies was dominated by opposition parties.

Kuala Lumpur Tower

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The Kuala Lumpur Tower (officially known as Menara Kuala Lumpur; referred later as KL Tower) is a tall tower located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and was built in 1995. It is used for communication purposes and features an antenna that reaches 421 m (1,381 ft), which currently makes it the fifth tallest freestanding tower in the world. The roof of the pod is at 335 m (1,099 ft). The rest of the tower below has a stairwell and an elevator to reach the upper area, which also contains a revolving restaurant, providing diners a beautiful view of the city. Races are organised yearly where participants race up the stairs to the top. The tower also acts as the Islamic falak observatory to look for the crescent moon to mark the beginning of Muslim month of Ramadhan, Syawal, and Zulhijjah, to celebrate fasting month of Ramadhan, Hari Raya Aidilfitri and Aidiladh

The construction of the KL Tower which began on 4 October 1991, was a 3-phase process. The first phase was the widening of Jalan Punchak and the excavation of soil from the construction site. This phase went on until 15 August 1992.

On 6 July 1992, the second phase began with the construction of the foundation and basement of the tower. Approximately 50,000 cubic meters of concrete were continuously poured for 31 hours thus setting a record in the Malaysian construction industry. The foundation work, requiring no piling, was completed by 1 April 1993.

The third phase was the construction of the 'superstructure' which began in 1 May 1994. The tedious construction of the tower started with the erection of the tower shaft, then the tower head. As the finishing touches to the tower head were being done, the construction of the touristic building began.

The touristic building is adorned with designs that reflect the Malaysian Islamic culture. The main lobby of the upper ground floor is decorated with exquisite glass-clad domes that sparkle like giant diamonds. These domes were designed and arranged in the form of the Muqarnas by Iranian craftsmen from Isfahan.

On 13 September 1994, Prime Minister, YAB Dato Seri Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad performed the Topping-up Ceremony where the antenna mast was installed, thus marking the final height of the tower, 421 meters above the ground. Lastly installation of the facilities and amenities was executed to ensure comfort and safety.

The KL Tower was officially opened by the Prime Minister on 1 October 1996. Among the distinguished guests to the Tower were the Yang di-Pertuan Agong Tuanku Jaafar, Raja Permaisuri Agong Tuanku Najihah, the wives of the Sultan of Brunei, DYMM Paduka Seri Baginda Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Hajah Saleha and DYTM Pengiran Isteri Hajah Mariam.

Religion in Malaysia

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Malaysia is a multi-religious society and Islam is the official religion. According to the Population and Housing Census 2000 figures, approximately 60.4 percent of the population practiced Islam; 19.2 percent Buddhism; 9.1 percent Christianity; 6.3 percent Hinduism; and 2.6 percent traditional Chinese religions. The remaining was accounted for by other faiths, including Animism, Folk religion, Sikhism and other faiths while 1.1% either reported as having no religion or did not provide any information.[64][65]

All ethnic Malays are considered Muslim (100%) as defined by Article 160 of the Constitution of Malaysia.[66] Additional statistics from the 2000 Census indicate that ethnic Chinese are predominantly Buddhist (75.9%), with significant numbers of adherents following Taoism (10.6%) and Christianity (9.6%). The majority of ethnic Indians follow Hinduism (84.5%), with a significant minority identifying as Christians (7.7%) and Muslims (3.8%). Christianity is the predominant religion of the non-Malay bumiputra community (50.1%) with an additional 36.3% identifying as Muslims and 7.3% identifying as adherents to what is officially classified as folk religion.[65]

The Malaysian constitution theoretically guarantees religious freedom. Non-Muslims experience restrictions in activities such as construction of religious buildings and the celebration of certain religious events in some states.[67][68] Muslims are obliged to follow the decisions of Syariah courts when it comes to matters concerning their religion. The jurisdiction of Syariah court is limited only to Muslims over matters of Faith and Obligations as a Muslim, which includes marriage, inheritance, apostasy, religious conversion, and custody among others. No other criminal or civil offenses are under the jurisdiction of the Syariah courts, which have a similar hierarchy to the Civil Courts. Despite being the supreme courts of the land, the Civil Courts (including the Federal Court, the highest court in Malaysia) in principle cannot overrule any decision made by the Syariah Courts; and presently are reluctant to preside over cases involving Islam in any nature or question or challenge the authority of the Syariah courts. This has caused notable problems, particularly involving civil cases between Muslims and non-Muslims, in which civil courts have ordered non-Muslims to seek recourse from the Syariah Courts.

Demographics

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Malaysia's population comprises many ethnic groups, with the Malays at 50.4% making up the majority and other bumiputra/indigenous (Aborigine) groups in Sabah and Sarawak at 11%[61] of the population. By constitutional definition, Malays are Muslims who practice Malay customs (adat) and culture. Therefore, technically, a Muslim of any race who practices Malay customs and culture can be considered a Malay and have equal rights when it comes to Malay rights as stated in the constitution. Non-Malay bumiputra groups make up more than half of the state of Sarawak's population (of which 30% are Ibans), and close to 60% of Sabah's population (of which 18% are Kadazan-Dusuns, and 17% are Bajaus).[61] There also exist aboriginal groups in much smaller numbers on the Peninsula, where they are collectively known as Orang Asli.

23.7% of the population are Malaysians of Chinese descent, while Malaysians of Indian descent comprise 7.1% of the population.[61] The majority of the Indian community are Tamils but various other groups are also present, including Malayalis, Punjabis and Gujaratis. Other Malaysians also include those whose origin, inter alia, can be traced to the Middle East, Thailand and Indonesia. Europeans and Eurasians include British who settled in Malaysia since colonial times, and a strong Kristang community in Malacca. A small number of Cambodians and Vietnamese settled in Malaysia as Vietnam War refugees.

The population distribution is highly uneven, with some 20 million residents concentrated on the Malay Peninsula, while East Malaysia is relatively less populated. Due to the rise in labour intensive industries, Malaysia has 10 to 20% foreign workers with the uncertainty due in part to the large number of illegal workers. There are a million legal foreign workers and perhaps another million unauthorised foreigners. The state of Sabah alone has nearly 25% of its 2.7 million population listed as illegal foreign workers in the last census. However, this figure of 25% is thought to be less than half the figure speculated by NGOs.[62]

Additionally, according to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Malaysia hosts a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 155,700. Of this population, approximately 70,500 refugees and asylum seekers are from the Philippines, 69,700 from Burma, and 21,800 from Indonesia.[63] The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants named Malaysia as one of the Ten Worst Places for Refugees on account of the country's discriminatory practices toward refugees. Malaysian officials are reported to have turned deportees directly over to human smugglers in 2007, and Malaysia employs the RELA, a volunteer militia, to enforce its immigration law.[63]

Natural resources

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Malaysia is well-endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture, forestry and minerals. In terms of agriculture, Malaysia is one of the top exporters of natural rubber and palm oil, which together with sawn logs and sawn timber, cocoa, pepper, pineapple and tobacco dominate the growth of the sector. Palm oil is also a major generator of foreign exchange.

Rolling tea fields in Malaysia.

Regarding forestry resources, it is noted that logging only began to make a substantial contribution to the economy during the 19th century. Today, an estimated 59% of Malaysia remains forested. The rapid expansion of the timber industry, particularly after the 1960s, has brought about a serious erosion problem in the country's forest resources. However, in line with the Government's commitment to protect the environment and the ecological system, forestry resources are being managed on a sustainable basis and accordingly the rate of tree felling has been on the decline.

In addition, substantial areas are being silviculturally treated and reforestation of degraded forestland is being carried out. The Malaysian government provide plans for the enrichment of some 312.30 square kilometers (120.5 sq mi) of land with rattan under natural forest conditions and in rubber plantations as an inter crop. To further enrich forest resources, fast-growing timber species such as meranti tembaga, merawan and sesenduk are also being planted. At the same time, the cultivation of high-value trees like teak and other trees for pulp and paper are also encouraged. Rubber, once the mainstay of the Malaysian economy, has been largely replaced by oil palm as Malaysia's leading agricultural export.

Tin and petroleum are the two main mineral resources that are of major significance in the Malaysian economy. Malaysia was once the world's largest producer of tin until the collapse of the tin market in the early-1980s. In the 19th and 20th centuries, tin played a predominant role in the Malaysian economy. It was only in 1972 that petroleum and natural gas took over from tin as the mainstay of the mineral extraction sector. Meanwhile, the contribution by tin has declined. Petroleum and natural gas discoveries in oil fields off Sabah, Sarawak and Terengganu have contributed much to the Malaysian economy. Other minerals of some importance or significance include copper, bauxite, iron-ore and coal together with industrial minerals like clay, kaolin, silica, limestone, barite, phosphates and dimension stones such as granite as well as marble blocks and slabs. Small quantities of gold are produced.

In 2004, a minister in the Prime Minister's Department, Mustapa Mohamed, revealed that Malaysia's oil reserves stood at 4.84 billion barrels (769,000,000 m3) while natural gas reserves increased to 89 trillion cubic feet (2,500 km3). This was an increase of 7.2%.[citation needed] As of 1 January 2007, Petronas reported that oil and gas reserve in Malaysia amounted to 20.18 billion barrels (3.208×109 m3) equivalent.[60]

The government estimates that at current production rates Malaysia will be able to produce oil up to 18 years and gas for 35 years. In 2004, Malaysia is ranked 24th in terms of world oil reserves and 13th for gas. 56% of the oil reserves exist in the Peninsula while 19% exist in East Malaysia. The government collects oil royalties of which 5% are passed to the states and the rest retained by the federal government.

Etymology

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The name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a 14-state federation. However the name itself had been vaguely used to refer to areas in Southeast Asia prior to that. A map published in 1914 in Chicago has the word Malaysia printed on it referring to certain territories within the Malay Archipelago. The Philippines once contemplated naming their state "Malaysia", but Malaysia adopted the name first in 1963 before the Philippines could act further on the matter. Other names were contemplated for the 1963 federation. Among them was Langkasuka (Langkasuka was an old kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium of the common era).

Even further back into history, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl in volume IV of Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia in 1850 proposed to name the islands of Indonesia as Melayunesia or Indunesia though he favored the former.

Petronas twin towers

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The Petronas Twin Towers (also known as the Petronas Towers or just Twin Towers), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are twin towers and were the world's tallest buildings before being surpassed by Taipei 101. However, the towers are still the tallest twin buildings in the world. They were the world's tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004 if measured from the level of the main entrance to the structural top, the original height reference used by the US-based Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat from 1969 (three additional height categories were introduced as the tower neared completion in 1996).
he Petronas Twin Towers were the tallest buildings in the world until Taipei 101 was built, as measured to the top of their structural components (spires, but not antennas). Spires are considered integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Twin Towers remain the tallest twin buildings in the world.

The Sears Tower and the World Trade Center towers were each constructed with 110 occupied floors – 22 more than the Petronas Twin Towers’ 88 floors. The Sears Tower and the World Trade Center’s roofs and highest occupied floors substantially exceeded the height of the roof and highest floors of the Petronas Twin Towers. The Sears Tower’s tallest antenna is 75 m (246 ft) taller than the Petronas Twin Towers’ spires. However, in accordance to CTBUH regulations and guidelines,[2] the antennas of the Sears Tower were not counted as part of its architectural features.[3] Therefore, the Petronas Twin Towers exceed the official height of the Sears Tower by 10m, but the Sears Tower has more floors with occupied office space at a higher level.

Designed by Argentine-American architect César Pelli, the Petronas Towers were completed in 1998 and became the tallest buildings in the world on the date of completion. They were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations. The 120-meter foundations were built by Bachy Soletanche, and required massive amounts of concrete.

The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross-section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb (albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements). Due to a lack of steel and the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation than a comparable steel building. Supported by 23-by-23 meter concrete cores and an outer ring of widely-spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides from 1300 to 2000 square metres of column-free office space per floor.Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC, a shopping mall, and Dewan Filharmonik Petronas, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra.

Other buildings have used spires to increase their height but have always been taller overall to the pinnacle when trying to claim the title. In the aftermath of the controversy, the rules governing official titles were partially overhauled, and a number of buildings re-classified structural antenna as architectural details to boost their height rating (even though nothing was actually done to the building).